Panchang is a Vedic/Hindu calendar that follows traditional timekeeping units and presents important dates and calculations.
The word Panchang directly translates to Panch (Five)+ Ang (Limbs/part), which denotes a day being briefly categorized into five attributes means five parts. Any instance of time will have five things associated with them.
A typical Panchang will provide tabulations of positions of Sun, Moon, constellations, and other planets for every day of the year on a given place (longitude, latitude) and time of day.
There is an English calendar system like January, February. Similarly, there are Hindu month names (vary based on language); As the date changes at 12′O Clock in the night, the day/Vara changes with the sunrise in Panchang. Change Date/City
11:19 AM to 01:06 PM
04:41 PM to 06:28 PM
07:45 AM to 09:32 AM
12:42 PM to 01:30 PM
Mars - Up to May 20 2022, 05:09 AM
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Significance of Panchang
The idea of a Panchang is well-rooted in Ancient Vedic sciences. It fully relies on the law that every action brings an equal and opposite reaction. When we plan and act in harmony with our environment, our environment, in turn, bestows a harmonious influence on us.
This practice favors and establishes peace, clarity, and stability in our lives. Considering that time is the most priceless resource, the knowledge of panchang enables us to understand the quality of a particular moment in time and helps us live in synchrony with nature.
In our Ancient Vedic sciences, it is energy with a defined quality, and when utilized with the right notion, it can contribute to our overall life in the most productive way.
Uses of Panchang in Vedic astrology
Panchang is used in locating dates of vratas, shraddhas, for finding suitable dates for auspicious functions, spiritually powerful time periods. It also plays a major role in fixing Muhurthas for weddings, writing horoscopes, natal charts, and predictions.
Aligning your day-to-day activities with the panchang will enhance the success rate. We can also know about the unfavorable periods in a day like Rahukaalam and Yamagandam.
The Five Parts of Panchang
- Vaar (Days of the Week)
- Tithi (Lunar Day)
- Nakshatra or the Constellation
Vaar (Days of the Week)
In Panchang, a day begins at sunrise (unlike midnight on the English calendar). A planet rules each day. The vocabulary of the day is based planetary lord of the hora during the sunrise.
According to Vedic sciences, each day consists of 24 Horas counted from one sunrise to the next. A planet governs each hora, and seven planets take turns.
For instance, if the 1st hora of the day during sunrise is Soma-Moon hora, it is called Soma Vaara-Monday. Similarly, it can be seen the first hora lords of successive days are in the order,
- Mars/Mangala- Tuesday,
- Jupiter/Guru- Thursday,
- Venus/Shukra- Friday,
- Saturn/Shani- Saturday,
which are the seven weekdays or Vaaras. Shadow planets, Rahu and Ketu, are associated with Tuesday and Saturday.
Tithi (Lunar Day)
Tithi is a lunar day. Tithi is based on a relationship between the planet Sun and Moon. There are 15 Tithis in both waxing and waning cycle of the Moon.
Tithi consists of a dark and a bright fortnight called paksha. Waxing cycle is referred as Shukla paksha and waning cycle as Krishna paksha. When the Moon completes 12 degrees of its movement orbit around the Sun, it is called a Tithi.
This movement takes approximately 19 to 26 hours. Therefore a Tithi can start or end at any part of a day. Because of the Moon's orbiting's varying duration, a Tithi can sometimes end before a full 24hr day or be extended above one day. There are several rituals and festivals associated with Tithis.
The names of the Tithis are given below:
- Ashtami (Half Moon)
- Purnima (Full Moon)/ Amavasya (New Moon)
Nakshatra or the Constellation
Nakshatras are the stellar constellations or Lunar mansions. Each nakshatra has thirteen degrees and twenty minutes of the lunar zodiac.
The position of the Moon in the Lunar Zodiac (counted in intervals of thirteen degrees and twenty minutes -13°20') is indicated by the name of the Constellation /Nakshatra it occupies.
The duration of a nakshatra is based on the Moon's time to travel from one constellation to another, over the Ecliptic. There are twenty-seven Nakshatras considered in Vedic Astrology.
The 27 Nakshatras include Ashwini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrighasira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pushya, Ashlesha, Magha, Poorva Phalguni, Uttara Phalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishaka, Anuradha, Jyestha, Moola, Purva Ashadha, Uttarashada, Sharavan, Dhanishta, Shatabisha, Purvabhadra, Uttarabhadra, and Revati.
A Karana is half a thithi, or each thithi is divided into two equal parts, each being a Karana known by a specific name.
There are 11 types of Karanas. Four of them are referred to as Fixed Karanas since they occur only once a month: Kintughna, Chatushpada, Sakuni, and Naga.
The other seven are movable Karanas. They follow one another in a standard pattern: Bava, Balava, Kaulava, Taitila, Gara, Vanija, and Vishti. Each of the Karanas has its influence and interpretation. ‘Vishti’ is considered the most inauspicious karana.
Yoga in a panchang refers to Auspicious & inauspicious periods. Yoga is calculated from the sum of the Sidereal( Nirayna) Longitude of the Moon and Sun, and the sum is divided into 27 parts of 13°20' each.
Nirayana translates to Nir(without) and Ayana(motion).
The first yog ( Viskumbh) ends when the sum is 13°20'. Second Yog ( Priti) ends when it is 26°40' and goes on. There are 27 Yogas as aligned to the Nakshatras but not fixed with any of them.
These Yogas and Karanas are particularly observed for childbirth and used to determine the nature of the child.
1. Vishkabhma (Well Supported) — prevails over others, victorious over enemies, obtains property, wealthy.
2. Priti (Fondness) — well-liked, attracted to the opposite sex, enjoys life with contentment.
3. Ayushman (Long-lived) — good health and longevity, energetic.
4. Saubhagya (Good Fortune) — enjoys a comfortable life full of opportunities, happy.
5. Sobhana (Splendor) — lustrous body and demeanor sensualist, obsessed with sex.
6. Atigandha (Danger or obstacles, Hurdles) — difficult life due to numerous obstacles and accidents; revengeful and angry.
7. Sukarma (Virtuous, pious) — performs noble deeds, generous and charitable, wealthy.
8. Dhriti (Determination, Health) — enjoys the wealth, goods, and spouses of others; indulges in others' hospitality.
9. Soola (Spear, Pain) — confrontational and contrary, quarrelsome, angry.
10. Ganda (Danger or obstacles) — flawed morals or ethics, troublesome personality.
11. Vriddhi (Growth, Progress, excess) — intelligent, opportunistic, and discerning; life constantly improves with age.
12. Dhruva (Constant, unwavering) — steady character, able to concentrate and persist, wealthy.
13. Vyagatha (Beating, harmful) — cruel, intent on harming others.
14. Harshana (Thrilling, mystic) — intelligent, delights in merriment and humor.
15. Vajra (Diamond, Thunderbolt) — well-off, lecherous, unpredictable, forceful.
16. Siddhi (immense Success) — skillful and accomplished in several areas; protector and supporter of others.
17. Vyatipata (Calamity, unlucky) — prone to sudden mishaps and reversals, fickle and unreliable.
18. Variyan (Comfort, Well-being) — loves ease and luxury, lazy, lascivious.
19. Parigha (Obstruction, Hurdles) — encounters many obstacles to progress in life; irritable and meddlesome.
20. Siva (Auspicious, Fortunate) — honored by superiors and government, placid, learned and religious, wealthy.
21. Siddha (Well-Accomplished) — accommodating personality, pleasant nature, interest in ritual and spirituality.
22. Sadhya (Amenable, Amicable) — well behaved, accomplished manners and etiquette.
23. Subha (Auspicious) — lustrous body and personality, but problems with health; wealthy, irritable.
24. Sukhla (Bright White) — garrulous and flighty, impatient and impulsive; unsteady and changeable mind.
25. Bramha (Priest, God) — trustworthy and confidential, ambitious, good discernment and judgment.
26. Indra (Chief, Warrior) — interest in education and knowledge; helpful, well-off.
27. Vaidrithi (Poor Support) — critical, scheming nature; powerful and overwhelming mentally or physically.
So, just like asking, What time is it now? We can also ask, Which Tithi is now? Which Vaara is now? Which Nakshatra is now, which Karana is now? Likewise, which yoga is now?
Explore today's Panchang